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Ayurveda is the ancient medical science of India. Many herbal, mineral and metallic drugs are being successfully used in treatment of various ailments. Tin (Vanga) in incinerated and processed form is being used in Ayurvedic medicines since thousands years. Vangeshwara Rasa and Swarnavanga are such popular Ayurvedic medicines made of Tin. Now day various queries regarding safety of metallic Ayurvedic drugs is being raised by various countries. Though Vangeshwara Rasa and Swarnavanga are time tested harmless, there is no documented data of safety and toxicity study of these drugs. This study elaborates the acute sub-acute and chronic toxicity study of Vangeshwara Rasa and Swarnavanga on experimental animals. The study proves the said drugs to be safe. This book will definitely be useful for Ayurveda clinicians and researchers.
Rasa Shastra is the ancient science of Indian alchemy. At present Rasa Shastra is included as a part of Ayurveda pharmaceutical studies in India, since the medicinal properties of mercury including the other metals are being explored for their capabilities on many incurable diseases. Globally a lot of Ayurvedic medicines have been blamed as a risk for health, for containing heavy metals like mercury, lead, arsenic etc. This present work is an attempt to investigate, a traditionally made mercurial medicine called Samirpannaga Rasa, prepared from mercury, sulphur, minerals like arsenic sulphides and oxides following Rasashastra principles. After a 28 day animal trial it was observed that this medicine, following traditional methods of administration was safe to be used in healthy albino rats. This work presents some literary and experimental evidences on safety and efficacy of mercury as medicine. It will change your view about defining a medicine and a poison literally. Ayurveda says that even a poison used cautiously and judiciously for treating a disease is like an elixir of life and even other medicines assumed as elixir, when used injudiciously may lead to death.
The present study was planned on prepubertal female rats to evaluate the mechanism of cadmium-induced toxicity and to evaluate the prophylactic and the therapeutic potential of Saraca indica against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in female reproductive system with the following objectives. 1) To study the mechanisms of toxicity of cadmium on female reproductive system of prepubertal rats. 2) To study the protective role of Saraca indica against cadmium induced damage to in prepubertal rats.
One of the many challenges related to the implementation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the occurrence of toxicity. Drug toxicity may lead to drug substitution, morbidity and mortality risk factors of HIV/AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with toxicity occurrences among HIV/AIDS patients based on data obtained from Dilla and Hawassa Referral Hospitals recorded from June 2007 - June 2009. Logistic and multiple regression methods were applied. The results of the analysis was discussed: the occurrence of toxicity, the causes of change in drug regimen, the main risk factors associated with drug change and the risk of being toxic, predictors affecting the base function status, factors that affected CD4 count, CD8 count, Base line functional status and Base line WHO clinical stage of patients. The analysis would help physicians shed some light on toxicity and its causes, and would be useful in determining the effect of drug regimen and development of new regimens, or anyone else who may be study on drug toxicity. Finally, this book is also helping how to apply statistical concepts.
Present work undertaken in view of the fluoride toxicity in human populations from endemic areas in India, the present study was an attempt to evaluate the effects of fluoride on the male reproductive organ – testis. The possible therapeutic effects of administration of amino acids (glycine and glutamine) alone as well as in combination for mitigation of fluoride toxicity were also investigated during the tenure of the study.
The purposes of acute toxicity testing are to obtain information on the biologic activity of a chemical and gain insight into its mechanism of action. The information on acute systemic toxicity generated by the test is used in hazard identification and risk management in the context of production, handling, and use of chemicals. For a classical LD50 study, laboratory mice and rats are the species typically selected. This book gives a short review of methods for acute toxicity testing with the emphasis on the Up and Down Method as per OECD Guidelines 425. Furthermore, this book consist of one research work on acute oral toxicity studies performed by authors.
The pharmacological studies, acute toxicity, sub acute or repeated dose 28 day oral toxicity study and sub chronic or repeated dose 90 day oral toxicity study of HF cross bred cow urine as well as routine comparative study of urine from different breeds of cows were carried out in the present investigation in wistar albino rats.In conclusion, crossbred milking HF cows’ urine and indigenous cow breeds showed hepatoprotective effect and wound healing properties. Crossbred milking HF cows’ urine was found to be safe at the used dosage in terms of various hematological and biochemical parameters.
In acute oral toxicity LD50 value obtained was 4541.1067 mg/ kg. In repeated dose 28 day subacute oral toxicity study, hematological parameters viz., TEC, Hb, Hct and TLC showed significant decreased level in treated groups. Similarly biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, BUN, creatinine showed significant increased level in treated groups. There was a significant decrease in body weight gain in treated groups. Satellite high dose group animals showed partial recovery in terms of haematological, biochemical parameters and body weight gain after cessation of norfloxacin administration. Histopathology of both male and female rats revealed toxic effect of norfloxacin on liver, kidney, heart, spleen and intestines. Satellite high dose group showed recovery to normalcy in histopathological study.
Today many medicinal plant species of India have reached the fate of extinction of severe toxicity of liver and kidney. Unfortunately detailed information and complete inventions on such plats often do not exist. For most of the endangered species, no conservation efforts have been implemented and a lion’s share of the knowledge on their properties and use are held exclusively by traditional healer societies, whose very existence is now under threat. The aim of this book in the study of ploygonum bistorta is a herbal plant is used against over doses of paracetamol toxicity in liver and kidney. The crude extract of root and active compound (tannic acid) of polygonum bistorta plant showed hepatoprotective activity. This book describes antioxidant activity, blood, tissue biochemical as well as histopathological study of liver and kidney against toxicity of paracetamol. We believe that this book is one of the pioneering compilations of extract and active compound of herbal plant which are very protective mechanism in toxicity liver and kidney organs. This book will be useful to the people interested in medicinal properties of polygonum bistorta and its treatments.
Embelia schimperi is widely used in traditional medicine in many countries including Ethiopia. There are several reports about the pharmacological properties of Embelia schimperi such as ethno-antihelminthics, anti-bacterials and other activities. However, there are no published reports about the possible toxicological effects of this plant. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute and the sub-chronic toxicity of Embelia schimperi fruit crude methanolic extract. The toxicity study of the plant was carried out on adult Swiss albino mice and the study included gross observation and measurements of changes in body weight, hematological parameters , biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney of both experimental and control groups of mice. The mice were divided into three groups (12animals/dose) and were administered different doses (400 and 1200mg/kgbwt) of the plant extract orally for eight consecutive weeks. The control group of animals received 2% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The body weight of all animals in each group was measured in the beginning and in the end of the experimental period.
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is commonly used pain killer available without prescription in many parts of the world. Alcohol and few drugs increase paracetomol toxicity if consumed together. Accidentally or intentionally taken overdoses of paracetamol may be fatal mainly due to hepatorenal toxicity. Some herbal compounds have been found to reduce paracetamol induced hepatototoxicity; however, kidney is less worked out.In developing countries like India where self medication is common practice, overdoses of paracetamol and additive toxicity due to simultaneous use of herbal drugs exists. Under such circumstances paracetamol toxicity may go unnoticed. Also, general public is not aware of antidotal treatment. Frankly speaking it is not known that commonly used herbal compounds/drugs shall enhance, reduce or nullify paracetamol toxicity. This book describes a serious study on the influence of six commonly used herbal compounds in India on the hepatorenal toxicity of paracetamol in mice.Readers should not try herbals+paracetamol on human beings. Herbal-paracetamol drug like modern synthetic nitroparacetamol (NCX-701) should not be dream.
A comparative study of cardio protective activity of nebivolol, carvedilol and metoprolol was carried out on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. The degree of protection was assessed both in vivo by short axis echocardiography measuring ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), left ventricular systolic diameter (LVSD) and left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDD) and in vitro by measuring the inotropic and the chronotropic responses to isoproterenol. Also histopathlogical study was done. This study revealed that there is a significant improvement of cardiac functions in rats treated with ?-blockers and there is no significant difference between carvedilol and nebivolol whereas nebivolol has the best histopathological score for improvement cardiac toxicity.
There is no dearth of books entitled with Hepato-pharmacology, Pharmacology, Hepatotoxicity, and Jaundice and so on. But this book on Hepato-Pharmacology has its own unique features in its way of presenting the concepts of the super oxides on liver serum marker enzymes levels and liver tissues; it concludes the level of liver toxicity. Significant effects of Ecbolium viride on liver enzymes and histopathological study of isolated liver shows hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activity. This book emphasizes on finding the role of Ecbolium viride and mineral drugs like combination of prepared Borax and Alum against Acetaminophen induced liver toxicity. The degree of protection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, SALP, Uric Acid, Bilirubin (Direct & Total) and Total Protein. In addition histopathological study was also carried out.