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The Book “ MODERNITY IN PERSIAN AND ASSAMESE POETRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IRAJ MIRZA, MOHD. TAQI BAHAR, NAVA KANTA BARUA & NILAMONI PHUKAN – A COMPARATIVE STUDY” is regarded as useful reference Book for Studying the modernization of persian and Assamese poetry. It Consists of six important Chapter dealing with Modernism, Modernization of persian poetry, Modernization of Assamese poetry, Modernity in the poetry of Md. Taqi Bahar and Iraj Mirza, Modernity in the poetry Navakanta Barua and Nilamoni Phukan, Modernity in Persian and Assamese poetry – A comparative study
According to the existing sources, “general and proper terms” were studied by grammarians and logicians as well. Proper nouns have been studied by grammarians and logicians from the viewpoint of the denotational approach. In the study of general and restricted terms one can include another category of words besides nouns, namely, adjectives. General and restricted terms can be analyzed as a continuum rather than distinct categories. In Persian, each term can change its nature to a restricted term in association with other terms and show new effects by analogy to some sense-relations. When restricted nouns are used as general terms, there is a clear shift in semantic type. We can conclude that this type-shifting occurs in the case of nouns which does not occur in the case of adjectives in Persian. Restricted nouns can be used in plural form or can be followed by yek [a] if they are used as general nouns in Persian.
This book is a comparative study of Argument Structure (AS) of Verbal Derivations in English and Persian. It shows how the morphological processe of derivation can affect the argument structure of the verb base. To study such an effect and to compare the simillar nature of AS in the two languages, we drew Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS) of both stems and derived words. The LCS of each derived word illustrates the fact that most changes in AS of a word are the result of what happens to the semantic primitives of its LCS.
This book is the result of three years of research by the author to build an intelligent system to provide semantic support for Persian Learners of English. To do so, computational description of Persian Morphology and Syntax has been included. The system constructs semantic representations of the content of both the original English sentences as well as students'' translations as input text. It then compares the discourse states that result from the source text and the target text and reports on a range of mismatches. It is shown that by adding a CALL component to the language teaching system, it is possible to analyze original English sentences and the students'' translations and compare their semantic content using logical forms to provide diagnostic information about lexical and semantic errors made by students.
This study explores the semantic components and the syntactic alternations of a group of cut and break verbs in Kurdish. The results indicate that there is no clear semantic line between cut and break verbs in Kurdish. Guerssel et al. (1985) consider these verbs to represent two distinct semantic classes of verbs. They assume that the syntactic behavior of a verb can be explained in light of its semantic representation. Guerssel et al. did not consider all the semantic and pragmatic contexts that determine verb meaning and use. I investigated the use of Kurdish verbs in different syntactic and semantic contexts. I chose contexts in which the verbs indicate real as well as metaphorical actions.
This research is an attempt to analyze the English and Persian research articles with regard to the occurrence of ellipsis as a type of cohesive tie. Another significant objective of the study is to predict the errors Iranian EFL learners are likely to make when they use English ellipsis in their written and spoken performance. The most important finding of the present study is that these three models of classification are applicable to Persian and English ellipsis. The other important finding is that Persian and English have the same types of ellipsis, the only difference being that one of the types of ellipsis namely quasi-ellipsis present in English is absent in Persian. This verifies McCarty’s claim (2005) that ellipsis is probably a universal feature of languages. The final finding of the study is that the grammatical options which realize ellipsis in Persian discourse vary markedly from those realizing English ellipsis. It is this variation in the realization of ellipsis which results in certain errors on the part of Iranian EFL learners.
Contrasting of Addressing Forms in Persian & Turkish in Iran. Fakhri Mesri: Payam-e-Noor University, Po Box 19395-3697, Tehran, I.R of IRAN. All human languages have addressing forms. Addressing forms are considered as an interesting phenomenon in the study on the across cultural communication because of including numerous addressing systems in different cultures and languages . This study focuses on the social- pragmatics aspects of form of address and terms of reference in Turkish and Persian in Iranian context. The aim of the study is to explore the choice of such terms in different situations by different people and also it gives opportunity to explore the influence of factors like relative powers and social distance on the use of forms of address on reference in the highly stratified society. Eighty people participating in the present study .Frothy group was Turkish and frothy group was Persian. In both of the groups were male, female, modern, and traditional subjects. They had t o complete the questioners which were about addressing form in different context. The result of this study shows that the terms which are used by different people are not always the same.
Technical translators can act as terminologists to coin and select acceptable equivalents among competing terms which are listed in special dictionaries or databanks. In this regard, the Academy of Persian Language and Literature in Iran has suggested standard terminologies in more than 40 different fields of studies. In this study, the degree of acceptability of the astronomy terminology equivalents approved by the Academy of Persian Language and Literature were investigated practically and linguistically.
According to CDA theories, every language use is an ideological act. Ideologies can interfere in translation in various ways, as Fairclough (1995) illustrates these ways in her model at 3 levels textual, paratextual and semiotic levels. The author investigated this novel in textual level. The present study aimed to answer how ideological difference manifests in translation criticism and what strategies are involved in its Persian translation. Next, the author applied Farahzad's model of CDA at three levels to trace back ideological interventions of translator. Having studied the novel and compared it with its Persian translation, the author distinguished the ideologically laden words or phrases in the target text. The findings of the study indicates that ideology is an inseparable part of the society and cannot be ignored during translation.
This study investigates the Arabic conjunction ‘wa’ and how it is translated into English. Firstly, it aims to examine the conjunctive relations posed by each ‘wa’ found in surah Yasin and how they are translated in the surah. It then tries to assess the semantic functions of these ‘wa’ and whether the English translations match with the meaning in the source text. It was found that the semantic function of ‘wa’ when translated to English is not always direct (one-to- one or ‘wa’ = ‘and’) rather ‘wa’ can translates into nothing/ zero, or it may be replaced by other conjunctions and prepositions such as ‘by’, however’, while etc. The study also reveals two additional semantic functions of ‘wa’ which have not been stated before, namely; denying ‘wa’ (wa + ma, or wa + la), and conditional ‘wa’ (wa + Law).
This book describes the semantic study of Hindi verbs in detail. In the first chapter I have describes the Hindi language. The second chapter deals with the classification of verbs. The third chapter deals with deep cases. The fourth chapter deals with the important surface realisation of the deep cases. It also deals with the derivation of causatives. The last chapter deals with the deletion of arguments.
In this study, the researcher aimed to identify and introduce the most frequently used strategies in the translation of grammatical cohesive devices in the novel of "the Catcher in the Rye" by J.D. Salinger. The research is on a corpus-based analysis of English grammatical cohesive devices and their Persian equivalents on the model of Halliday and Hasan (1976). As the result of the study, a number of strategies were introduced in order to transfer the English grammatical cohesive devices into the target language and the study also proved that the most frequent strategy used by the Persian translator is using grammatical cohesion of similar meaning and the least frequent one is using grammatical cohesion of different meaning. The researcher concluded that the grammatical cohesive devices in English are used in Persian differently and the choice of Persian translator in some cases has been the expansion of the translated text, i.e. repetition of the information that is mentioned in the text in order to avoid vagueness and wearisome of the reader.
An important study of travel accounts in Persian, dealing with India, Iran and Central Asia between 1400 and 1800. This book can be read for a better understanding of the nature of early modern encounters, but also for the sheer pleasure of entering a new world.
This study deals with word formation in English and Persian Languages with special reference to Affixation processes such as Prefixation, Infixation, and Suffixation, and Compounding processes involving Three Words, Common Nouns, and Hamkards. It throws some light on the importance of word formation in Persian, its influence on other languages, borrowed terms and phrases and references to word building techniques such as affixing and compounding to derive new words from roots. In addition, this study focuses on how new words are constantly derived by merging two existing words into a new word, the differences between verbal suffix and objective suffix.
In the last years, the amount of textual electronic information available has been increasing rapidly. Computer understanding of texts has become an important trend in computational linguistics. Proper processing of this kind of information requires an interpretation of their meaning at a semantic level. This work presents novel measures to estimate the degree of semantic similarity between words using one or more knowledge sources. The measures are based on the exploitation of the knowledge modelled in one or several ontologies and on the estimation of the information distribution of terms in the Web. They have been applied to clustering, computing the similarity/distance between individuals described by textual attributes. Results show that a proper interpretation of textual data at a semantic level improves the quality of the clusters and eases their interpretability.