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In this book has been shown that the early age thermal cracking in concrete structures resulted from either internal restraint caused by differential expansion within concrete member during heating due to larger temperatures gradient between the core, and that the adjacent media or by external restraint to contract on cooling from a temperature peak of the concrete specimen are the critical factors in developing early age thermal cracking. It has been found that the temperature differential that causes early age thermal cracking in concrete is greater than that figure found in previous research. Other factors influencing the development of the thermal cracking were investigated and recommendations on controlling the early age thermal cracking are given. The experimental technique carried out in this research investigation is an improvement on the past research on the early age cracking and the effects of internal and external restraints were studied. Further methods of assessing the risk of the early age thermal cracking in mass concrete under natural environmental conditions developed and the results are compared with those under laboratory conditions.
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been widely used to protect the superalloy components from the hot gas stream in gas turbine engines. Driven by the higher inlet temperature of modern gas turbine engines for higher efficiency and less harmful gas emission, exploration of TBC new materials and thermal radiation effects of TBCs have recently attracted more attentions. This research explored the potential application of gadolinium zirconate as a promising new TBC material due to its lower thermal conductivity, higher phase stability, and higher CMAS-resistance than conventional YSZ material. The thermal cycling tests were performed using a novel test rig which was designed to mimic the complex working condition of TBCs, and the thermal radiation properties were characterized in the wavelength range where turbine engine thermal radiation is most concentrated. This book is suitable for both beginners and professions in the field of TBCs, as it covers both the brief introduction of TBC system, deposition methods, recent development and the in-depth analysis of failure mechanisms and different models to determine the coating absorption and scattering coefficients.
Recently, saving energy as well as minimization of environmental pollution has become a serious issue. So high portion of ferrous alloys particularly used in automation industry should be replaced by light alloys and their composites. To meet the service applications while the new materials are in use, great efforts should be exerted in materials development field. Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been attracting growing interest in the last decades. Knowledge about their properties is an essential need for designers. This book introduces a contribution in this area. It demonstrates the possibility of improvement high thermal shock resistance of materials. Our concern is dealing with the thermal fatigue that these materials undergo when subjected to thermal excursion. Thermal fatigue is a threat for MMCs which could lead to catastrophic failure of machine elements and loss of life in severe cases. Emphasizing the gap in this knowledge, this book has been identified to handle essentially major issues; material processing and characterization, thermal behavior of such materials with designing and constructing an apparatus for carrying out thermal cycling test with a new technique
H. Lee S. Thermal Design. Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
The proposed is written as a senior undergraduate or the first-year graduate textbook,covering modern thermal devices such as heat sinks, thermoelectric generators and coolers, heat pipes, and heat exchangers as design components in larger systems. These devices are becoming increasingly important and fundamental in thermal design across such diverse areas as microelectronic cooling, green or thermal energy conversion, and thermal control and management in space, etc. However, there is no textbook available covering this range of topics. The proposed book may be used as a capstone design course after the fundamental courses such as thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. The underlying concepts in this book cover the, 1) understanding of the physical mechanisms of the thermal devices with the essential formulas and detailed derivations, and 2) designing the thermal devices in conjunction with mathematical modeling, graphical optimization, and occasionally computational-fluid-dynamic (CFD) simulation. Important design examples are developed using the commercial software, MathCAD, which allows the students to easily reach the graphical solutions even with highly detailed processes. In other words, the design concept is embodied through the example problems. The graphical presentation generally provides designers or students with the rich and flexible solutions toward achieving the optimal design. A solutions manual will be provided.
At the center of Hide and Seek (1854) a secret waits to be revealed. Why should the apparently respectable painter Valentine Blyth refuse to account for the presence in his household of the beautiful girl known only as Madonna? It is not until his young friend Zack Thorpe-rebelling against his repressive father-takes up with bad company and meets a mysterious stranger that the secret of Madonna can be unravelled.
Over their lifetimes, approximately one in every five couples in the United States seeks infertility care. Surprisingly, only half of ?couples who are trying to become pregnant achieve pregnancy easily and about one in ten American couples of reproductive ?age are involuntary infertile; male infertility accounts for half of these cases. Despite the relative importance of infertility due to ?the male, infertility evaluations have traditionally focused on women, because women tend to seek gynecological care and ?because men often are reluctant to seek advice.
POS-5805LD thermal receipt printer is compatible with Compatible with ESC/P0S/Star print instruction mode. It can print 80mm width thermal paper with more than 90mm/sec printing speed, very fast and reliable. Its LCD screen makes it more popular among people. Features Print 80mm width thermal paper, 203DPI resolution, fast printing speed. Auto sleep, auto awake, convenient to use and power saving. LCD screen can show the printer's model, working state, power status etc. Rechargeable 2000mAh lithium-ion battery ensures 5-6 days standby time. You can connect it with your Android smartphone or Windows PC via Bluetooth. Suitable for restaurant/bus/taxi receipt, logistics/transportation/warehouse management, bills, orders printing. Specifications Model POS-8002LD Name Thermal receipt printer Print Method Thermal line printing Print Speed >90mm/s Reliability 100km Resolution 203DPI (8dot/mm) Print Width 72mm (576 dots) Roll Width (Max) 80±01mm Roll Diameter (Max) ≤50mm Roll Type Thermal roll Power Re-chargeable lithium battery Battery 7.4V, 2000mA Charging 9V/1.5A Language Multi-languages Printing Parameters Logo download and printing supported Product Weight 520g Package Weight 600g Product Size 105 x 100 x 45 mm Package Contents 1 x Bluetooth Receipt Printer, 1 x Power Adapter, 1 x USB Cable, 1 x Roll of Test Paper, 1 x CD Driver, 1 x User Manual
The motorized spindles are equipped with built-in motors for better power transmission and balance to achieve high-speed operation .The thermal deformation of the spindle owe to the heat decreases the accuracy of high-speed machine tool greatly. The dynamic characteristics are affected by thermal load, preload, centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. So the Finite element analysis is important to characterize the thermal and dynamic behavior of the high speed motorized spindle. The methodology for the thermal and dynamic analysis is arrived from the literature survey. Thermal analysis is conducted for finding temperature distribution, radial and axial deflection due to thermal load for different operating speeds in high speed motorized spindle using ANSYS. The temperatures which are taken from the ANSYS results at bearings and motor location in the high speed motorized spindle are validated with the data which are taken experimentally. Modal analysis is performed for finding natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the high speed motorized spindle with the effect of the axial preload, centrifugal and gyroscopic effects using ANSYS.
The food industry has utilized automated control systems for over a quarter of a century. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the use of more sophisticated software-driven, on-line control systems, especially in thermal processing unit operations. As these software-driven control systems have become more complex, the need to validate their operation has become more important. In addition to validating new control systems, some food companies have undertaken the more difficult task of validating legacy control systems that have been operating for a number of years on retorts or aseptic systems. Thermal Processing: Control and Automation presents an overview of various facets of thermal processing and packaging from industry, academic, and government representatives. The book contains information that will be valuable not only to a person interested in understanding the fundamental aspects of thermal processing (eg graduate students), but also to those involved in designing the processes (eg process specialists based in food manufacturing) and those who are involved in process filing with USDA or FDA. The book focuses on technical aspects, both from a thermal processing standpoint and from an automation and process control standpoint. Coverage includes established technologies such as retorting as well as emerging technologies such as continuous flow microwave processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and applied aspects of thermal processing, concluding with speculations on future trends and directions.
This experimental work was done to measure the thermal conductivity of nanofluids (TiO2-water, ZnO-water and Al2O3-water). The thermal conductivity is measured experimentally, compared with the theoretical models for each nanofluid at each particle volume fraction. The unmatched hike is obtained in the thermal conductivity through nanofluid. To perform the experiment the nanofluid is prepared at different volume fractions of 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% of TiO2, ZnO and Al2O3 nanoparticles with base fluid water. The nano particles are mixed with water in ultrasonic vibration mixer (UVM) machine. The mixing of nano particles is done through ultrasonication. The measurements are taken at room temperature with the help of Thermal property analyzer KD2 Pro device which is most accurate device to measure the thermal properties of the liquids as well solids. The results of this experimental work shows that thermal conductivity increases 22% for TiO2 nanofluid, 17% for ZnO nanofluid and 24% for Al2O3 nanofluid with base fluid water for 1% volume fraction of nanofluid.
Thermal chemistry is the branch of science which is applicable in chemistry, physics, engineering, material science and medical science. The principal objective of this book is to stimulate interest in research that will extend available theory towards a greater understanding of the steps involved in metal complexes decompositions, properties of metal complexes and kinetic parameter data consider with to calculate Half decomposition temperature, Activation energy, Frequency factor, Entropy change and Free energy change. This book is designed to cover the “Thermal Chemistry” use to calculate the thermal method and water loss in chemical complexes. This book is applicable for Research students of Ph.D / Project of M.E / M.Tech / M.Sc / B.E. / B.Tech and all engineering, biochemical, biomedical, scientific courses. It provides various concepts of thermal Chemistry with different thermograms and references. It covers up the recent need of thermal chemistry for Ph.D research students, Industrial thermal workers, medical and engineering courses as per requirement of Indian and various other universities and industries. It focuses on three chapters with various references and method.