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The book entitled Bio-Medical and social aspects of infertility has been a sincere attempt of assimilation of most of the topics like the biological mating patterns, body constitutes and nature of disorders of both male and females infertility besides the socio–psychological factors. In that direction this title endeavored shall act as a hand book. Many chapters of this book explain the infertility problems, including disorders. The economic well-being of the people as also the quality of the life styles is well indicated by the changes in the bio-demographic picture of the population. The study may form base line data for the region would also be of utility for future surveillance and secular trends of infertility. The meaning of the association from the stand point of a particular target population and human society in general. The pupil will find a new dimension which is to help them in long run. This book is especially useful for a multi ethnic, multi lingual and multi religious country like India which is in the throes of development. Studies of this nature contribute to the nation’s development and all other spheres of human life and activity.
Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome encompassing a wide variety of ?disorders. In more than half of infertile men, the cause of their infertility is ?mysterious (idiopathic) and could be congenital or acquired.? The causes are known in less than half of these cases, out of which genetic or ?inherited disease and specific abnormalities in the Y chromosome are major ?factors. About 10–20 percent of males presenting without sperm in the ?ejaculate carry a deletion of the Y chromosome Male genetic factor of infertility accounts for about half the cases of couple ?infertility and in around 50% of cases its etiology remains unknown. Molecular ?genetic techniques have unveiled a number of etiopathogenetic factors, ?including microdeletions of the Yq. Y chromosome microdeletions removing ?the AZoospermia Factor (AZF) regions are the most frequent molecular genetic ?causes of oligo/azoospermia).?
Infertility can be defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy within one year of regular unprotected intercourse. A specific male or female factor can be identified in approximately 80% of couples. Advances in the understanding of the causes of infertility have facilitated the development of increasingly complex diagnostic tools. The accurate detection of underlying reproductive abnormalities helps to guide management decisions and maximize treatment outcomes. A basic evaluation for infertility may be grouped into three main categories: semen analysis, assessment of ovulation, uterine and tubal evaluation. Uterine and tubal structures may be visualized using a variety of techniques, including hysterosalpingography, transvaginal sonography, sonohysterography, laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current investigations and diagnostic interventions for the evaluation of infertility along with their indications and use; and also identifies areas for future research.
Infertility affects one’s life at the very core – feelings of anger, depression and guilt are very commonly experienced by infertile couples. The causes of infertility are many; amongst the most common are blockages of the fallopian tubes, endometriosis, low sperm counts and poor sperm motility and/or morphology. IVF, however, is not the answer to all fertility problems. In this book, I tried to explain what infertility is, describing infertility both in females and in males, outlining techniques that are used as treatment such as IVF and factors affecting infertility, the effects of smoking on fertility, effect of different lifestyles and Human Papilloma virus, a common sexually transmitted virus.
This book stresses primary infertility among women who showed endometria in proliferative phase and were not ovulating. In such cases, it is the histological immaturity which is responsible for infertility. Secretory phase endometrium means that the woman is ovulating. Defect may be either depletion of glycogen which may result in inadequate uterine bed at the time of implantation and hence, may be one of the causes of infertility. Glycogen shows a regular variation in endometrium during each menstrual cycle and is under the influence of oestrogen and progesterone. In primary infertility, glycogen deficiency occurs in secretory phase. This poor secretory activity might be responsible for laying down of unsuitable bed for ovum thus resulting in infertility. Abnormal glycogen distribution in glands and stroma of secretory phase endometrium may lead to poor preparation of the endometrium for nidation in infertility.
Infertility is an important reproductive issue prevailing in the society because the production of offspring is necessary for the continuation of society. In Pakistan, fertility is related to women and is considered an important part of life. It is assumed that soon after the marriage a couple will prove itself to be fruitful. The present study was conducted to deal with the various aspects of individual’s life which are affected by infertility. It highlighted the causes of infertility in males and females and what are the psychological and social problems of infertile among the couple. Infertility is not a problem of a single person rather it affects both partners and how infertility affects the relationship of husband and wife was also studied. The basic aim of the study was to explore the stigmatization of infertility among the infertile couples in Islamabad. Infertility threatened the individual to be labeled as incomplete, useless, barren and abnormal person, which caused lack of confidence, respect and loss of status in the society. The social support by the family, friends and partners has however, played a vital role in dealing with stigmatization.
This study attempts to examine the determinants of choice of treatment outlets for infertility among infertile patients in Osun State, Nigeria. The study shows that there is high rate of misconceptions about the causes of infertility, which invariably affects the fertility-seeking behaviour of the respondents. However, there are varieties of treatment providers for infertility in the study area which are sought by patients either simultaneously or subsequently. The study therefore shows that there is dire need to train and educate the different treatment providers for appropriate couple counseling and to follow a standard infertility management protocols. A community-based education should be given to change the community’s perception of infertility. This may help in changing the fertility-seeking attitude of infertile patients.
Unexplained infertility is failure of conception after three years of unprotected intercourse, while no definite cause of infertility can be diagnosed after a complete work up. Empirical therapy for unexplained infertility using assisted reproductive technology has recently gained popularity. In this study, we compared the value of Fallopian tube sperm perfusion, standard intrauterine insemination and timed intercourse after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in the treatment of unexplained infertility. In conclusion, Fallopian tube sperm perfusion is an easy and well tolerated method, and could be recommended for management of unexplained infertility.
Help your patients through the maze of infertility treatments Infertility is suffered by around 1 in 7 couples and can be a source of confusion for both partners, providing high stress on relationships. 25% of cases are explained through male infertility, 50% through female infertility, whilst 25% are generally unexplained. The possible causes and solutions are many and complex. Infertility, one of the first in the new Gynecology in Practice series, assists gynecologists and family practitioners to better care for their patients who have trouble conceiving. The authors provide a strong focus on effective diagnosis and management. Following a review of the factors that affect fertility, Infertility takes a practical approach to: Evaluation of fertility Management and treatment Complications Pre-implantation screening Fertility preservation Gynecology in Practice The Gynecology in Practice series provides clinical 'in the office' or 'at the bedside' guides to effective patient care for gynecologists. The tone is practical, not academic, with authors offering guidance on what might be done and what should be avoided. The books are informed by evidence-based practice and feature: Algorithms and guidelines where they are appropriate ''Tips and Tricks' boxes – hints on improving outcomes 'Caution' warning boxes – hints on avoiding complications 'Science Revisited' – quick reminder of the basic science principles Summaries of key evidence and suggestions for further reading
Presence of antisperm antibodies (ASA) can reduce fecundity in both males and females. Though the etiology of ASA and their effects on gametes have been studied extensively; its clinical implications on infertility are disputed so far. Detection of possible causes of infertility will enable to streamline the treatment. This book provides research information on ASA in infertile couples in Sri Lanka. It investigates the incidence of ASA in semen and serum of male partner and in serum, cervical mucus and follicular fluid of female partner, possible risk factors for the formation of ASA, effects of different isotypes of ASA / location of ASA on fertilization processes as well as pregnancy rates. Further it has compared the pregnancy outcome after fertility treatments, in couples with and without ASA. The book is also a source of useful statistical details for management of infertile couples and has a comprehensive literature review on ASA. Therefore, this work is especially valuable for professionals work in the field of infertility and researchers working on immune-infertility.
This book discusses and compares the effect of culture on the different definitions and management of infertility and its treatment by different actors in both a modernising and late modern society with Nigeria and Britain as case studies. It begins with an introduction of the issue by examining the different definitions of the condition and the infertility situation in both societies with their causes. The two health systems and available treatments are examined along with the determinants of help seeking by affected couples. Studying and comparing the different experiences of infertile couples in both countries and how culture determines or interferes with choice of treatment achieved this. Also the social consequences of being infertile in societies that are so interested in procreation are examined. The study reveals that culture to some extent affects the perception of infertility and it’s chosen remedies. From the answers to the questions drawn from the study, it is clear that infertility is a common issue in both societies and can be a traumatic experience for the couple involved, and treatment-seeking behaviour determinants vary (not totally gendered, as it may seem).
For several years, many physicians and reproductive researcher did focus in their search for fertility problem on female partner, and only few of them are aware of the scientific implication of accurate assessment of male partner in any infertility case. The understanding of male infertility requires adequate knowledge of the male reproductive system functions which represents the key for appropriate diagnostic method. The major goal of this book is to provide substantial scientific data on the risk factors to male infertility. It results demonstrated the possible role of man aging, presence of urogenital tract infection, and smoking habit in the etiology of male infertility. In addition, it clarified the limited value of traditional semen analysis in comparison to the new molecular techniques and suggests the need to expand research on male infertility.
Infertility is a major medical and psychosocial concern in the world. Infertility has many psychological and social implications for infertile couples. This study explores the impact of infertility on marital adjustment and mental well being of couples living in South Punjab, Pakistan. The research supports the contention that infertility affects the quality of marital relationships and the quality of mental well being of infertile couples.
Infertility is not a simple illness, it’s a complex of problems for the couple, their family, friends and society. In my country, there are not scientific evaluations for the level of infertility in the general population. So, this study aimed to give a small contribution for the epidemiology of the infertile Albanian couples who underwent to In Vitro Fertilization, causes of their infertility, protocols of stimulation, evaluations of the factors related to the pregnancy, correlations between them, percentage of the pregnancy, confronting with the literature etc. It's a modest book prepared with reliability and love. I humbly hope to be helpful to everyone who can be interested.
Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve pregnancy in one year. The causes of male infertility include, the testicular primary failure, deficient gonadotropin secretion, hyperprolactinemia or idiopathic male infertility. The present study was conducted to verify the relationship of male sex hormones changes with serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. To achieve this aim 75 infertile men with ages of 20-40 years and 35 fertile men with ages of 20-40 years were enrolled. Sex hormones were estimated by an enzyme immunoassay method with final fluorescent detection and free testosterone was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, while serum lipid profile and MDA concentrations were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The results demonstrated significant increases of FSH, LH and prolactin levels and significant decreases of total and free testosterone levels in the group of infertile men when compared with the control group. Serum lipid profile and MDA levels of infertile men indicated significant increases of cholesterol, LDL-c and MDA levels, and a significant decrease of HDL-c levels when compared with the control group.