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Water supplies to households by the water utilities in Nigeria have traditionally been confined within what is known as domestic water needs. The quantity of water supplied has traditionally been tailored to cover basic needs such as drinking, cooking and personal sanitation needs etc. However this has not been a true reflection of the use of this limited amount of water supplied. A social survey was made of households and institutions in Owerri city,Imo State, Nigeria? where productive uses of water is already real, particularly in activities such as home gardening, horticulture and livestock rearing etc. Emerging research across the developing world shows that millions of low income households use their limited water supplies for activities such as productive uses as well as domestic needs. Such productive uses of water may not really thrive or even take off unless the required quantity of water is available. Such activities often generate numerous benefits to households involved. An understanding of how productive uses of water could successfully be mainstreamed into urban water systems in Nigeria was studied and the report presented.
The substances which cause pollution are known as pollutants. It may be defined as any substance that is released intentionally or inadvertently by man into the environment in such concentration that may have adverse effect on environmental health. The Indian Environment (Protection) Act (1986) defines 'pollutant' as any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentration, as may be or tend to be injurious to environment.
Integrating the sun light's energy into building's design and processes has been one of the most important aspects of building technology in the past century. One of the concepts that makes it possible to take advantage of the various spectra of the sun's energy band is the use of glass facades. However, the desire to use glass facade to maximize the sun's energy into a building comes at a great cost due to the compromises that exist between permitting daylight and attendant unwanted heat gain. The product described in this book makes deals with elimination of such compromises using nature's way of cooling the earth. A significant portion of the infrared rays from the sun can be captured by the water and dissipated to prevent direct solar heat gain into (un)conditioned space. The benefits of using such as system include reduced energy consumption due to artificial lighting, air-condition equipment, and an eventual decrease in green house gases.
Access to potable water still remain an illusion to over one billion people which is manifested in high incidence of water and sanitation related diseases such as guinea worm. With the launch of the Guinea Worm Eradication Programme in 1989, interventions such as the provision of potable water and treatment of unwholesome water before use were pursued. Albeit these interventions, the worm is still prevalent in the Savelugu-Nantong District of Northern Ghana. This work investigated why in spite of the huge investment in water and sanitation facilities, as well as education campaigns, the disease is still persistent. The incidence of guinea worm over space does not relate with the distribution of water facilities; it is more preponderant in the south- eastern corridor and in the major communities where there is potable water. This book examines the relationship between water supply and guinea worm infestations and will be useful for water and sanitation sector stakeholders and practitioners such as staff of District Assemblies, Water and Sanitation Teams, District Health Directorate and the Guinea Worm Eradication Programme.
Water is destined to be the critical resource of our Century since the demand for fresh water will continue to increase while the supply dwindles. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of diverted water globally, reaching a proportion that exceeds 70–80% of the total in the arid and semi-arid zones. Nevertheless, irrigated agriculture is still practiced in many areas in the world with complete disregard to basic principles of resource conservation and sustainability. Therefore, irrigation water management in an area of water scarcity will have to be carried out most efficiently, aiming at saving water and at maximizing its productivity. In the context of Mediterranean region, crops production is predominantly limited by water deficiency and inadequate management. Therefore, understanding how crops can increase the capture and the efficiency in using limiting resources, such as water, undertakes a strategic importance. Thus, the needs for improving water productivity (WP) in Mediterranean agriculture and for investigating WP behavior on legumes (such as faba bean) and root (such as potato) crops are evident. Accordingly this work focused in this issue.
The book examines study water quality and to the suitability for its use for irrigation purposes, also its effects on physical and chemical soil properties . there Parameters used for irrigation water quality assessment such as EC, pH, TH , SAR , Adj SAR, SSP, RSC , Mg ratio and Cl , also some heavy metals B , Cu, Mn, Fe ,Pb, Zn ,Cd , Co and Cr . There were notable effects for irrigation water on some physical soil properties such as soil texture , bulk density and saturated water content and some soil chemical properties such as pH, EC, soluble ions and exchangeable cations.
Urbanization such as population growth, industrial development, solid waste, and households lead to different behaviors of water quality parameters in nature. By increasing urban growth, both surface and ground water quality are contaminated in different ways. To investigate the water quality situation, different impacts due to population growth, land use change, industrial expansion and projected solid waste condition were considered for the Savar Pourashava. Due to urbanization, there are massive impacts on localities such as population growth, land use change, more solid waste generation, drainage networks etc. The river has become a dumping ground for all kinds of solids, liquids and chemical wastes by industry. As a result the quality of the water is being deteriorated day by day. The quality of water is degrading in a large scale. Now the DO of canal, pond, drain fall water and tube well water are 2.3, 0.2, 0.1 and 3.4 respectively. With the analysis of the problems, it provided innovative insight and recommendation in order to reduce the existing problems as well as guidelines for future urban development and to ensure a safe and better water quality in in Savar Pourashava.
Water is vital to the existence of all living organisms, but this valued resource is increasingly being threatened as human populations grow and demand more water of high quality for domestic purposes. Water can contain substances that are harmful to life.These include metals such as mercury,lead and cadmium,pesticides,organic toxins and radioactive contaminants. However, some of these, particularly bacteria, protists, parasitic worms, fungi, and viruses, can be harmful to humans if present in water used for drinking.Initiatives to better the quality of drinking water at household level have been effective in reducing the occurrence of waterborne diseases.One such system is water purifier system (water disinfection).This book tests the performance evaluation of common water purifiers for increase in improved drinking water supplies reduced household expenditure on water quality, setting some source protection benefits. This book will definitely serve not only as an excellent reference but also as a practical guide for physico-chemical characteristics of water.Book will be useful to environmentalist,teachers,students and common peoples,interested in household common water purifiers
Magnetization of water is an interesting process. Where the interaction of magnetic energy with water has stimulated a spreading research interests, which may be essential for widening the use of magnetized water in various areas as well as understanding the fundamental physics of such interaction. The importance of magnetized water has been arisen from its versatile use in industry, Agriculture, irrigation, medicine and many. So far, the effect of magnetic field on water has been recognized as nonlinear problem and proposed the mechanism of magnetization of water is according to the structure and distribution of its molecules.
Over the last few years environmental management has been a major cause for concern especially in Africa. Kenya is not an exception in this issue with resources such as water, forests and wildlife being under threat from various quarters. The threat to water resources is posing a challenge to environmental sustainability. Lake Naivasha located in the Rift Valley in Kenya is one such water resource. There is a need to study such water resources and identify the problems facing them in order to suggest some solutions. This work takes a look at land use/ land cover changes with Lake Naivasha and its surroundings as the case study. It examines the use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems in mapping the land use/ land cover changes around the lake between 1986 and 2006 as well as predicting future changes and their implications. This book will be especially useful to professionals and students in the fields of environmental management and conservation, specifically those dealing with water resource management.